Medical use[ edit ] The only common medical use for GHB today are in the treatment of narcolepsy and more rarely alcoholism. Sodium oxybate is approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA for the treatment of cataplexy associated with narcolepsy  and excessive daytime sleepiness EDS associated with narcolepsy. GHB was ranked 15th in dependence, 19th in physical harm, and 14th in social harm.
Anderson, PharmD Common or street names: Euphoria, increased sex drive, and tranquility are reported positive effects of GHB abuse.
Negative effects may include sweating, loss of consciousness, nausea, hallucinations, amnesia, and coma, among other side effects.
Xyrem sodium oxybatea brand name prescription drug was approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA in for the treatment of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that causes excessive sleepiness and recurring daytime sleep attacks. It is the sodium salt of gamma hydroxybutyrate.
Xyrem is a highly regulated drug in the U. It is a Schedule III controlled substance, and requires patient enrollment in a restricted access program. GHB is also a naturally-occurring metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA found in the brain. The naturally-occurring metabolite GHB is present in much lower concentrations in the brain than those levels found when the drug is abused.
As a result of fermentation, natural GHB may also be found in small but insignificant quantities in some beers and wines. Methods of GHB Abuse GHB is available as an odorless, colorless drug that may be combined with alcohol and given to unsuspecting victims prior to sexual assaults.
It may have a soapy or salty taste. Victims become incapacitated due to the sedative effects of GHB, and they are unable to resist sexual assault.
Common user groups include high school and college students and rave party attendees who use GHB for its intoxicating effects. GHB has also been postulated to have anabolic effects due to protein synthesis, and has been used by body-builders for muscle building and reducing fat.
GHB is bought on the streets or over the Internet in liquid form or as a white powdered material for illicit use.
It is taken orally and is frequently combined with alcohol. Much of the GHB found on the streets or over the Internet is produced in illegal labs. The sodium salt of GHB, the brand product Xyrem sodium oxybateis a Schedule III drug when prescribed and used legally in a patient restricted-access program.
Xyrem is not available at regular retail pharmacies.
Only five percent of the parent drug is excreted via the kidneys. However, immediate negative effects of GHB use may include:The quantitative analysis of GHB in blood and other body fluids is a relatively simple task and concentrations in blood of impaired drivers and intoxication deaths have been well documented.
Clearly there is a need to consider types of co-ingested drugs when GHB overdose patients are treated, because this might influence the clinical. Its effects last from hours from an average reported dose of tablets.
Each tablet should contain anywhere from mg of MDMA, but research has shown that many of the ecstasy pills sold today actually contain more of other harmful drugs than MDMA itself.
Effects of GHB use in human pregnancy are not known. Women should not use GHB during pregnancy. Pregnant women, or those who are considering pregnancy, and who use GHB should seek the immediate advice of a health care provider. Treatment Option for GHB Abuse.
Little information is available on treatment options for persons addicted to any club drug, including GHB. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid. Jump to navigation Jump to search. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid; Clinical data (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, The effects of GHB can last from to 4 hours, or longer if large doses have been consumed.
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May 01, · Drugs that selectively activate the GHB receptor cause absence seizures in high doses, as do GHB and GABA B agonists. Activation of both the GHB receptor and GABA B is responsible for the addictive profile of GHB. GHB's effect on dopamine release is adriaticoutfitters.com: Josikins.